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篇名 管理學報, 2008
第二十五卷第三期:309-331
DOI: 10.6504/JOM.2008.25.03.03
員工知覺的組織支持與工作績效間的中介模型研究
Test of a mediating model linking perceived organizational support and job performance
作者
中文摘要
所謂”知覺組織支持”,是指員工心中會發展一種信念,來評估組織對員工貢獻與福利的重視程度。本研究主要目的在探討員工的組織公民行為、正向心情以及工作壓力,是否在員工知覺組織支持與工作績效間扮演中介角色。
過去研究普遍證實知覺組織支持可以提高員工績效,然而,我們仍未能清楚地了解這中間的機制為何。此外,過去研究也尚未能在組織的情境中,將知覺組織支持如何影響員工績效的過程予以模型化。
本研究以跨期的實地研究法,針對來自於北台灣來自於13 家公司,一共189 位員工,及38 位直屬主管施測後,發現組織公民行為、正向心情與工作壓力會部份中介知覺組織支持與工作績效間的關係:亦即當員工知覺的組織支持愈高時,會透過提高自己的組織公民行為、正向心情與降低工作壓力,進而提高自己的績效表現。
中文關鍵字
知覺的組織支持、正向心情、工作壓力、工作績效、組織公民行為
英文摘要
Perceived organizational support has been defined as the employees’ global beliefs that the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986). Past studies have generally demonstrated that perceived organizational support can enhance employee task performance (e.g., Eisenberger, Fasolo, & Davis-LaMastro, 1990). However, we do not yet fully understand the intricacies embedded within the mechanisms. Furthermore, we have yet to precisely model the process in which perceived organizational support lead to individual work outcomes in organizational settings. This study extends previous research by proposing an integrative model that examines mediating processes, including reciprocal processes and socio-emotional processes, underlying perceived organizational support and employee’s job performance.
This study shall extend the findings of prior studies by integrating the theoretical basis of social exchange theory and affective events theory (AET) into one framework that can facilitate research on the linkages between perceived organizational support and task performance. Prior research has cited social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) and applied this theory extensively to explain why beneficial actions directed at employees by their organization contribute to obligate employees to reciprocate in positive and beneficial ways, including task performance (e.g., Eisenberger, Armeli, Rexwinkel, Lynch, & Rhoades, 2001). Taking an alternative theoretical position, Weiss and Cropanzano (1996) argued that the features of a stable work environment (e.g., organizational support) influence the experiences of employees’ positive or negative feelings at work (i.e., positive moods and job tension, which in turn influence employees’ “affect-driven behaviors,” such as task performance or citizenship behaviors. To contribute to the literature on organizational support, the present study applies both social exchange theory and affective events theory to develop three mechanisms to explain how and why organizational support enhances employees' task performance.
Data were collected at three points in time from 189 employees and their immediate supervisors in thirteen companies in northern Taiwan. In this study we measured constructs with different sources (e.g., employees rated their perceptions of organizational support, organizational citizenship behavior, positive moods, and job tension, while supervisors rated employees’ task performance) in order to reduce the possibility of same source bias. To enhance the clarity of the causal relationship among variables of the present study, we distributed questionnaires at three points in time. Specifically, in time 1, employees were asked to evaluate their perceptions of organizational support. Two weeks later (time 2), a second questionnaire was administered. Employees were asked to rate organizational citizenship behavior, positive moods, and job tension. Two weeks after time 2 (time 3), immediate supervisors of the participants were asked to evaluate the participants’ task performance.
Results showed that organizational citizenship behaviors, positive moods and job strains partially mediated the relationship between perceived organizational support and task performance. Specifically, perceived organizational support might influence job performance by enhancing employee’s organizational citizenship behaviors and positive moods, and by reducing job strains. From a practical standpoint, managers that hope to increase employee task performance could take actions to enhance employee’s perceptions of organizational support. Recommendations may include encouraging supervisors to provide their employees with support (Eisenberger, Stinglhamber, Vandenberghe, Sucharski, & Rhoades, 2002), enhancing employees’ perceived autonomy by making employees understand that their job gives them the chance to use their personal initiative or judgment in carrying out the work.
英文關鍵字
Perceived Organizational Support, Positive Mood, Job Strains, Job Performance, Organizational Citizenship Behavior
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