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篇名 管理學報, 2008
第二十五卷第五期:549-575
DOI: 10.6504/JOM.2008.25.05.05
內在動機與員工創新行為之關係:Amabile 三元交互效果及Shin 中介效果之驗證
Intrinsic Motivation and Employee Creativity: Tests of Amabile’s Three-Way Interaction Effect and Shin’s Mediation Effect
作者
中文摘要
在當今高度競爭的企業經營環境,餐飲產業相當重視員工之創新行為表現,以提升餐飲業經營績效。近年來,學者們(如王安智,2004;蔡啟通、高泉豐,2004;Amabile, 1988; Shin & Zhou, 2003)亦高度熱衷於探討員工創新行為及其與員工工作動機之關連性。因此,本研究目的係以學者們共同關切之「內在動機」(IM)為探討焦點,檢測其與員工創新行為的關係。重要的是,本研究以Amabile(1988)創新三項環之交互模型為學理基礎,欲檢驗IM、互動正義、與領域相關技能的三元交互作用是否會對員工創新行為產生效果。不僅如此,本研究亦欲驗證Shin 和Zhou(2003)之研究發現,檢測IM 是否會對「轉型領導與員工創新行為之正向關係」產生中介效果。本研究之受測對象為台灣地區國際連鎖餐飲業48 家門市之384 位員工,實得有效問卷265 份。結果顯示員工的IM 愈高,則其愈會積極表現出創新行為。其次,「IM 和領域相關技能的交互作用」對員工創新行為的效果會受到高低互動正義之干擾。當員工知覺互動正義高時,IM 和領域相關技能的交互作用會對其創新行為產生顯著效果。亦即,若員工互動正義高且領域相關技能高時,則IM 與創新行為呈高度正相關;然而,若員工互動正義高且領域相關技能低時,則IM 與創新行為僅呈低度正相關。相對而言,當員工知覺互動正義低時,IM 和領域相關技能的交互作用對其創新行為不具顯著效果。最後,員工的IM 會對「轉型領導與員工創新行為之正向關係」產生完全中介效果。
中文關鍵字
內在動機、互動正義、摒除關係-特權、領域相關技能、轉型領導、創新行為
英文摘要
In this stage of our hospitality industrial history when innovation has become critical, an issue of increasing important to is how to promote employees’ innovative behaviors at work. Previous research has implicated intrinsic motivation (IM) as primary antecedents of employees’ innovative behaviors. Regarding the nature of IM is associated with innovative behavior, Amabile (1988) proposed a model of “interactionist” approach to understanding innovation-related performance. Amabile explored the independent and joint contributions of employees’ IM, creativity-relevant skills, and domain-relevant techniques to employees’ creative performance. Tsai and Kao (2004) examined whether the moderating effect of employees’ extrinsic motivation on the relation between intrinsic motivation and innovative behaviors is, in turn, moderated by organization innovation climate. Besides, previous research has also implicated mediators of leaders’ styles effects, arguing that an especially promising mediating framework is motivational factor. Shin and Zhou(2003) examined IM mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity.
This study examines the relationships between intrinsic motivation and employee employees’ innovative behaviors. In addition to examining the interaction effect of IM, interactional justice (resignation guanxi and privilege, RGP), and domain-relevant skill on employees’ innovative behaviors, this study also examines whether the interacting effect of employee’s IM and domain-relevant skill on their innovative behaviors is, in turn, moderated by interactional justice. This study also explores the IM as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ innovative behavior.
Survey data on 265 employees of food and beverage service industry of international chain in Taiwan suggest that the employees who placed more importance on their IM were more likely to perform innovative behaviors. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses revealed the three-way interaction effect of IM, RGP, and domain-relevant skill significantly lead to high levels of innovative behaviors. When employees who perceived the high-RGP, the IM had more of a positive impact on employee innovative behaviors when domain-relevant skill was high rather than low. In contrast, employees who perceived the low-RGP and high levels of the IM exhibited higher level of innovative behaviors, regardless of the level of the domain-relevant skill. In conclusion, only when an employee’s RGP was stronger and his or her domainrelevant skill was stronger, were higher perceived IM accompanied by increasing in innovative behaviors. Finally, results of regression analysis used to test direct and indirect relationships among variables indicated that transformational leadership positively predicted innovative behaviors but also had a positive influence through its effect on perceptions of IM.
英文關鍵字
Intrinsic Motivation, Interactional Justice, Resignation Guanxi and Privilege, Domain-relevant Skill, Transformational Leadership, Innovative Behavior.
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