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篇名 管理學報, 2007
DOI: 10.6504/JOM.2007.24.02.04
The Role of Perceived Risk in Forming Consumer Perceived Value
本研究依據相關學者所提出的模型,以及根據相關文獻推導出的理論模型,將知覺風險所扮演的角色歸納為三個competing model,並利用結構方程式模式(SEM)加以比較和驗證。研究結果發現:本研究提出的「風險雙重三個中介」理論模型,最切合消費者購買產品時其知覺品質、知覺風險和知覺價值的相互影響關係,並發現知覺風險與知覺品質對消費者知覺價值的形成有約略相等的影響力,不過兩者的影響方向相反。文中並根據研究發現提出相關的管理意涵以供業者擬定行銷策略時的參考。
Consumers attempt to pursue not only the highest value but also the least risk when purchasing commodities. To reach the goal, they use the extrinsic cue (such as price, brand, advertisement, reputation of the manufacturer and warranty) to evaluate the value and risk of products. Previously, a great deal of studies focused on how consumers evaluated perceived value and risk in terms of extrinsic cues; however, the majority of these studies explored the two dimensions separately. Researchers haven't integrated them until quite recently, but models they proposed were inconsistent. These inconsistent models make marketing managers no where to turn to, fail to realize the role of perceived risk in the course of forming perceived value, and are incapable of providing helpful suggestions. Because consumers are always value-driven, perceived value is always regarded as an important factor for both purchase and repurchases intention. Woodruff (1997) even thinks customer's value is the source of competitive advantage in the new era. Thus, to understand how consumers weigh value and which actions should be adopted to protect the value advantage becomes administrator's important subject.
The study categorizes the models of purchase strategic evaluation proposed by related researchers into two kinds: one is ”risk as mediator between extrinsic cue and value”, which is proposed by Wood and Scheer (1996) and the other ”risk as mediator between quality/sacrifice and value”, which is proposed by Agarwal and Teas (2001). Moreover, with the other two, Model ”risk as dual mediator”, which is inferred by this study based on related literature, constitute competing models. The study applying Structural Equation Model compares the three models and verifies the most fit one during the process of making decision when purchasing to establish the role of perceived risk during the process of forming perceived value.
Taking actual consumers as subjects and cell phones tested products, the study applying experimental design manipulates the different levels of brand and price, the extrinsic cue which is most considered when purchasing products. Meanwhile, this study administrates questionnaires to collect the data concerning perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, and perceived value, and applied SEM to figure out the relationship among them.
The results of study show that the Model ”risk as dual mediator” proposed by this study most fits in with the influence of one another among perceived quality, risk and value while consumers assess products by utilizing the external clue. The demonstration of this study shows that in the course of forming perceived value, perceived risk not only mediates the relationship between extrinsic cues and perceived value but also relationship among perceived quality, sacrifice and value. It shows that when assessing value, consumers not only simply focus on the tradeoff between acquired product quality and paid money, the result of risk evaluation, but also the mixture of acquired benefits (namely quality), tangible sacrifice (namely money) and intangible sacrifice (namely perceived risk). Namely, when consumers get in touch with extrinsic cue, they not only show the judgment in quality products but also assess the uncertainly of long-term potential loss. Moreover, consumers infer potential benefits and cost of the product by using the benefit (quality) and paid cost (money sacrifice) at the point of purchase. Apparently, the model proposed by this study modifies the viewpoints proposed by Wood and Scheer (1996) and Agarwal and Teas (2001), and, even more, fully explains the role of perceived risk when consumers assess quality and value by using extrinsic cues.
Price ,Brand Image, Perceived Quality, Perceived Risk, Perceived Value
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