Many scholars have already accepted the concept of organizations as knowledge systems. How to transfer and create know/edge system has become an important issue, but most researches focus on knowledge transfer between units or organizations. There is few researchs focused on the knowledge sharing and knowledge creation in teams. So the knowledge sharing, knowledge creation and innovation performance in teams is an important issue needed to be explored.
Team composition affects team process and performance. Knowledge-sharing and innovation performance are also possibly affected by team composition. Most of team composition researches focused on the visible variable characteristics, such as demographic variable, but the implicit personality variables were ignored (Milliken & Martin, 1996; Williams & O'Reilly, 1998). Actually, the relationship of personality and creativity is an important direction in creativity research. But the existed experimental research seems to be not enough to clarify the relationship of personality and innovation. This relationship is not well understood especially when it occurred in team context. So the purpose of this study is to understand how individual personality and team personality composition will affect knowledge sharing and innovation performance in teams.
Based on ”Big Five”, we constructed a multilevel model. On individual level, we explored how team member personality affects willingness of knowledge sharing. On team level, we explored the effect of team personality composition, average level and variability, on team knowledge sharing behavior and innovation performance.
We clollected 339 team member and 63 supervisor data from 63 R&D teams and use hierarchical regression analysis to test our hypothesis. On individual level, we found personality affect willingness of knowledge sharing. Among five dimensions of personality agreeableness has most significant positive effect on the willingness of knowledge sharing. On team level, we found the lower average level of team neuroticism, the more team knowledge sharing behavior facilitated. The average level of team openness to experience has positive relationship with team knowledge sharing behavior. The team agreeableness has marginal significant positive effect on team knowledge sharing behavior but has marginal negative effect on innovation performance. The van ability of agreeableness also has marginally significant effect on team knowledge sharing behavior.
The results reveal individual team member personality and team personality composition have different effect on knowledge sharing and innovation performance. These results also reveal the possible contribution of multilevel research.
Big Five, Personality, Team Composition, Knowledge Sharing, Innovation Performance, Multilevel Research